Allegedly the last scent worn by the doomed Marie Antoinette in the days leading up to the French Revolution. Created during less tumultuous times by Jean-Louis Fargeon, perfumer to the Queen at Versailles, the scent was a mysterious concoction ordered by the Queen during the time when her private estate, The Petit Trianon, was being constructed. The roses in the recipe evoked the flower gardens of her domain, and were combined with jasmine from Grasse, spices and noble woods from distant lands, precious patchouli and sandalwood, vanilla and cinnamon, coriander and cardamom, frankincense and galbanum all brought from India and French Islands beyond the seas. The fragrance was warm and mellow on the Queens much admired skin and she took it everywhere in a small flask made of black jade, to protect it from daylight. In the late 1700's conditions became intolerable for ordinary French citizens and many became convinced that the grand excesses of the nobility and royal family were to blame. On the eve of the imprisonment that would eventually lead her to the guillotine, Marie Antoinette passed the vial to the Duchesse de Tourzel, her lady in waiting and guardian of the dauphin. For the queen, the small vial contained memories of happier days, spent privately, away from the pomp and circumstance and suffocating rigors of the court at Versaille. The duchesse survived the revolution and often referred to her "jade noir" as a talisman. A few years after the revolution in 1798, Pierre Francoise Lubin, former apprentice to Fargeon, set up his own shop in rue Saint Anne and carefully reconstructed the formulas he had dutifully copied during his time in Paris with the master. Marie Antoinette's daughter, Marie Thérése of France, appointed him supplier to her husband, the Duke of Angouleme, after her return from exile in 1815. Lubin's famous fragrances soon won him the favor of the imperial court and his favor spread among the crowned heads of Europe. Among his documents are the Coat of Arms of France, the King of England, and the Russian Tsar. He eventually added the American Eagle to his list, as he was the first perfume maker to conquer the New World in 1830.